June 13, 2018
by Lee & Brown
The Legal Buzz – Lee & Brown Newsletter and Case Law Update June 2018
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In the News
Member Karen Gail Treece
attended the 2018 CLM
& Business Insurance Workers Compensation Conference in Chicago, May 22-24, 2018. The event offered unprecedented knowledge access to leaders in the Workers Compensation profession. The conference focused on national trends. Ms. Treece enjoyed seeing and speaking to industry leaders from across the country.
In Akerley v. Sherwin Williams Co. & Indemnity Insurance Company of North America W.C. No. 5-016-101-03, Claimant sought an increase to his average weekly wage (AWW) based on concurrent employment as a hide tanner. Through extensive factual investigation, it was determined that Claimant was terminated two weeks before the industrial injury. The same investigation revealed that Claimant did not disclose a business he owned and operated on the date of injury. Coincidentally, Claimant’s non-disclosed business specialized in the same services he alleged as the basis for concurrent employment. At hearing, Member Joseph Gren and Associate Matthew Fowls cross-examined the Claimant regarding his non-disclosed business. The ALJ discredited the testimony of the Claimant denying an increase to his AWW.
Of Counsel Frank Cavanaugh
and Associate Jessica Melson
successfully defended Claimant’s appeal in Romero v. Winn Residential Partnership
, W.C. No. 4-978-676. Claimant fell approximately three feet from a ladder while repairing a garage door. Claimant initially reported and treated for cervical spine and left shoulder symptoms. Claimant’s cervical spine symptoms resolved and treatment focused on the left shoulder. Claimant underwent a DIME with Dr. Tyler, who opined Claimant’s cervical spine was not causally related to the fall and placed him at MMI with an advisory 18% upper extremity impairment. Claimant sought to overcome the DIME regarding causation of the cervical spine. The ALJ determined that, while Dr. Tyler found Claimant injured his cervical spine in the fall, he opined Claimant’s current cervical spine complaints and pathology were not related to the industrial incident. The ALJ found Claimant failed to overcome the DIME. Claimant appealed. The Panel noted it was for the ALJ to resolve inconsistencies and conflicting opinions of the DIME physician. Claimant essentially requested ICAO to reweigh the evidence, but the ICAO affirmed the decision of the ALJ.
#MeToo and EPLI Policies
In response to the #MeToo movement
, companies have begun taking an increased role to prevent and police sexual harassment in the workplace. Protecting employees from any form of sexual misconduct or harassment should undoubtedly be the primary goal of these efforts. However, any proactive measures cannot guarantee that no incidents will occur, and companies’ future interests will be at risk. Consequently, counsel and risk managers should look to employment practices liability insurance (EPLI) which can provide coverage and pay for the defense of such claims. EPLI policies provide coverage for many types of the claims employees make against their employers that are not covered by workers compensation policies, including sexual harassment. Continue reading the article.
Cases You Should Know
No fake news here: While working as a banker, a man approached Claimant and handed her a note demanding $10,000. The man was provided the money and left. He was arrested several weeks later. Claimant initiated psychological treatment. After the robbery, Claimant had a miscarriage and was in a motor vehicle accident. Claimant sought workers’ compensation benefits based on mental injury. Three of Claimant’s medical providers opined she suffered from PTSD as a result of the robbery. Respondents’ IME physician testified Claimant had an exaggerated response to the robbery and her preexisting history was more likely the result of the mental condition. The ALJ found Claimant embellished facts of the robbery. Nonetheless, the ALJ found the opinions of three of Claimant’s treating providers more persuasive than Respondents’ IME opinions and held she suffered a mental impairment as a result of the robbery. Respondents appealed. Respondents argued Claimant failed to meet the requirements of C.R.S. §8-41-301(2)(a) that the “incident would evoke significant symptoms of distress in a worker in similar circumstances.” Respondents asserted Claimant exaggerated the facts of the robbery and her symptoms were more likely related to an intervening motor vehicle accident and miscarriage. The Panel affirmed. The ALJ’s finding of facts must be upheld if supported by substantial evidence. The record showed the ALJ considered the testimony and facts of the case. The ALJ found Claimant’s evidence more credibly and persuasive than Respondents in determining Claimant sustained a compensable injury. Austin v Wells Fargo, W.C. N. 4-973-614 (ICAO April 20, 2018).
Moral of the Story: It is very difficult to overcome the factual determination of an ALJ. The best evidence must be presented for the ALJ to consider at hearing because the persuasiveness of evidence may not be reconsidered on Appeal.
Tomatoe, Tomato. You call it medical treatment. I call it maintenance care: In Hughes v MV Transportation, Inc., W.C. No. 5-015-855, (ICAO April 12, 2018), Claimant sustained a compensable injury to his neck. Claimant was placed at MMI with impairment. Respondents filed an FAL. Afterwards, Claimant was recommended cervical surgery. Respondents contested the surgery arguing it did not qualify as maintenance care and that Claimant instead had the burden to prove reopening. The ALJ found that the ATP continued to opine Claimant remained at MMI after the surgery was recommended. The ALJ found the surgery qualified as maintenance treatment. Respondents appealed. The Panel noted the maintenance care is medical treatment necessary to maintain MMI or prevent further deterioration. C.R.S. § 8-43-203(3)(b); Grover v. ICAO, 759 P.2d 609 (Colo. App. 1995). This excludes treatment that will “cure” or significantly improve the condition. C.R.S. 8-40-201(11.5). Respondents cited to one opinion of the surgeon that the surgery “would improve his radicular pain” as evidence the surgery was not maintenance care. The Panel affirmed the ALJ finding his opinions were supported by substantial evidence.
Moral of the story: Medical maintenance treatment is to maintain MMI and does not include treatment to cure or relieve a condition.
The ALJ can only change the future, not the past: In this case, Claimant suffered an industrial shoulder injury. He was recommended for surgery, but he failed to present to the scheduled surgery three times. Respondents requested termination of Claimant’s TTD benefits due to his injurious practice of refusing to submit to surgery pursuant to C.R.S. § 8-43-404(3). The ALJ ordered termination of Claimant’s TTD benefits as of the date of the Order until he underwent surgery. Respondents appealed seeking termination of TTD benefits as of the date the first surgery was scheduled. ICAO affirmed because when a claim is admitted, an Order may only grant prospective relief. Ferguson v. Lane Electric, Inc., W.C, No. 5-030-198 (ICAO May 4, 2018).
Moral of the Story: An Order terminating benefits will be from the date of the Order as it can only grant prospective relief.
Til death do us part: In Ortega v. Blue Star Holding Co. & Fidelity & Guaranty Insurance, the Respondents sought to terminate death benefits to the Claimant’s widow using the theory that she entered a common law marriage with another man. The Respondents looked to the unique facts of the widow’s relationship with the alleged common law husband to meet their burden to prove the existence of the common law marriage. These facts included that the two had a child together, lived in the same house, and shared in many functions of daily life. The ALJ disagreed with the Respondents, and the Respondents appealed. The ICAO affirmed the ALJ’s decision, underscoring the high burden that a party must meet to disturb the factual findings of an ALJ.
Moral of the Story: Terminating death benefits using a common law theory of remarriage is difficult, and very reliant on the unique facts of each case.
Metal matters: The Claimant in Ramirez-Chaves v. In-Out Oil Field Services & Farmington Casualty Company injured her low back while lifting a piece of metal during her work as a welder. The matter proceeded to a DIME, wherein Claimant was found at MMI with permanent impairment. Despite placement at MMI, the DIME physician opined that the Claimant required a EMG. Claimant filed an application for hearing to overcome the DIME’s findings with respect to MMI, and succeeded by arguing the EMG was needed before a determination of MMI could be appropriate. Respondents appealed, arguing that necessity of an EMG study is not inconsistent with a finding of MMI. ICAO affirmed the ALJ.
Moral of the story: Where an ATP or DIME physician opines that further medical services are indicated, any finding of MMI faces serious jeopardy.